Pigmentation is primarily caused by sun damage. It often doesn't present until many years later after the skin has been damaged. It can also be activated by hormones. Many pregnant ladies report a pigmentation problem post-natal.
Pigmentation production is the very same as a sun tan except that in the damaged sites the body produces lots of pigment in an effort to prevent further damage hence the unsightly dark spots and patches. Unfortunately for the sufferer, the first glimmer of summer can result in unsightly pigmentation marks.
Hyper-pigmentation - Patches and age spots (as described above).
Melasma - This is a wider spread and has a more even distribution of pigmentation, commonly found in darker skin types.
Depending on what type of pigmentation is present will dictate the best treatment protocol.
There are two distinct aims of the treatment, which are to reduce the visibility of the dark patches and suppress the activity of the melanocytes. As well as treatments protecting your skin in the sun is vital in the success of this treatment.